The Chalchiuhite Dragon

A Tale of Toltec Times

By Kenneth Morris


Copyright © 1992 by Theosophical University Press; Afterword and Glossary copyright © 1992 by Douglas A. Anderson. This book was originally published as a Tor hardcover in March 1992. Electronic version ISBN 1-55700-160-x. All rights reserved. This edition may be downloaded for off-line viewing without charge. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial or other use in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Theosophical University Press. For ease of searching, no diacritical marks appear in the electronic version of the text.

This is a work of fiction. All the characters and events portrayed in this book are fictitious, and any resemblance to real people or events is purely coincidental.


CONTENTS

Preface

Book I — Peace

1. In the Beginning
2. The Eve of Teotleco
3. The Arrival of the Gods
4. The Chalchiuhite Dragon
5. Eagle Mountain
6. Nopal in the North
7. The Master
8. Rainflower Reminiscences
Section 2
9. Nopal's Homecoming
10. A Funeral and After
11. The Feast of the Mountains
12. The Votaries and Tlalocan
13. A Huitznahuatec Market Day
14. The Toltec Ambassador
15. The Audience
16. The Ambassador of the Gods
17. Passing

Book II — The Road

1. The Hierarch of Teotihuacan
2. Ahuacatl Glade
3. The God of Puma Rock
4. Forest Voices
5. The Ib Quinames
6. On the Hill of Derision
7. The Ib Quinames' Pilgrimage
8. The Republic of New Otompan
9. Yen Ranho, Disappointed
10.Acamapitzin's Plan

Book III — War

1. The Little Gods of Forgotten Plain
2. The Toltec Topiltzin Arrives
3. Exploration
4. Cohuanacotzin's Adventure
5. The Hierarch Acquires Information
6. Cohuanacotzin's Return
7. Nopal Returns
8. Nonohualcatl's Anger
9. Road and Barrier
Section 2
10. Civacoatzin's Message
11. The Rocks Fall
12. The Tzo Family Reunited
13. A Place of Refuge
14. Quauhtli's Journey
15. The Kings Meet
16. Nonohualcatl's Debt
17. Teotleco — The Arrival of the God

Afterword by Douglas A. Anderson
Glossary


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Preface

On Christmas afternoon in 1925, the one in this world to whom I owed the most asked me to write on a pre-Columbian subject, and when, after some three months of thought and research, I submitted to her the idea of a book on Quetzalcoatl, Katherine Tingley approved. Then Bancroft became my study; a poor authority perhaps, but historicity was not the chief aim. Bancroft disentangled, or thought he had disentangled, from the masses of legend the story of a Great King; this author tried to disentangle from Bancroft the story of a Great Teacher.

The result of Bancroft's labor is as follows: Ceacatl Quetzalcoatl was the son of the Toltec Topiltzin (Divine Emperor, or Pope-Emperor), Nonohualcatl Totepeuh Camaxtli and Chimalman, queen of Huitznahuac (which means the South), whom, at the head of her army of unclad and barbarous Amazons, Nonohualcatl defeated and conquered.

When Ceacatl was nine years old, his father was assassinated by three nobles: Cuilton, Zolton and Apanecatl. King Huemac of Tollan, Nonohualcatl's brother, besieged and captured these three in their lake fortress, and Ceacatl inflicted, or witnessed, their cruel punishment. He was brought up by the Princess Civacoatzin, an elder sister of his father, who seems to have been revered in after ages as the Possessor of a Wisdom.

Grown up, Ceacatl became king of Tollan, and soon after, the Toltec Topiltzin. Then he put down the custom of war, preaching to his people from a mountain top through a "loudspeaker" that caused his voice to be heard over many hundreds of miles and ordaining peace, a life of love, the doctrine we know.

However, Prince Huemac, probably Ceacatl's cousin, was ambitious; his ambitions were fanned by the priesthood of Teotihuacan, the old established church, now San Juan Teotihuacan, seat of the head of the Catholic hierarchy; or it was until the days of Don Plutarco Elias Calles and his successors. For they too have found themselves opposed by the priesthood of Teotihuacan. Huemac raised an army and marched against Tollan; now, would the Prince of Peace belie his teachings? Quetzalcoatl — that was Emperor Ceacatl's God-name, the name of the god he incarnated — would not belie his teachings; truth meant more to him than empire, and he "fled" (if you like the word) to Cholula, halfway eastward to Vera Cruz and the Gulf.

The Cholultecs welcomed him as their king, and there, it would appear, his activities as Teacher were intensified during the following nine years. Then Huemac, having consolidated his empire at Tollan — Tula, now; not far northwest of Mexico City — marched against Cholula; and Ceacatl, leaving the city in charge of four of his disciples, "fled" once more.

Whither? Some say to the Serpent's Hole in Goazacoalco. H. P. Blavatsky mentions this place; one gathers from her reference that it was the headquarters of the American branch of the Great White Lodge. Some, on the other hand, say that Ceacatl took ship and crossed the sea, and here it is interesting to note that in Mayapan in Yucatan, there appears a king counterpart to him, with the same character and teachings, by the name of Gucumatz, which name is being interpreted from Maya to Nahua as Quetzalcoatl; and the meaning of both is Plumed Dragon or Serpent.

Quetzalcoatl was the great and consistent pacifist of history. Ah, but you say, he failed; he was driven out, as pacifists always will be. But did he fail? We read that Huemac, swelled now with his easy victories, went conquering far and wide; that the Anahuacs, having tasted the peace of Quetzalcoatl, grew mighty tired of it; that Huemac, somewhere far in the north, was assassinated by his officers; and that the whole empire passed into the power and rule of the four disciples whom Quetzalcoatl had left in charge at Cholula.

That was the plot of the book that was intended at first, but I found the preliminaries too interesting — the matter of Quetzalcoatl's parentage and birth, the Serpent's Hole, Huitznahuac and it became apparent that the life of Quetzalcoatl must be left for another book. It was enough for this one if I brought him to birth, rearranging things and resifting the legends, endeavoring to see through the crude stories — which the Spaniards, after all, gathered only from the bloodthirsty Aztecs — to the spiritual and the beautiful which might be historically possible, too. For the Aztecs knew well that the Toltecs were far more cultured and gentle than themselves. I would go at least halfway to the stake for it that my city, Huitznahuacan, existed; I know my way through all of its streets and gardens. . . .

When did these things happen? Some think they knew that it was in the eleventh or the sixth century of Christianity, but the truth is that we don't know. Quetzalcoatl was born in a year Ce Acatl; he always is born in a year Ce Acatl. Cortes arrived in Mexico in a year Ce Acatl, which fact helped to paralyze Montezuma's will. Ce Acatl — Reed One — was the fourteenth year in any year-bundle of fifty-two years. It will be noted that the book never says that that particular Ce Acatl was the year of the birth of another of Quetzalcoatl's order, Lao-tse of China, in 604 B.C. but here I am confessing that that is this author's belief. Toltecs were to Aztecs much as Greeks are to ourselves: Quetzalcoatl was the Pythagoras of the Toltecs, and I would let him live in Pythagoras's time, had I my way. A plague upon this foreshortening of history!

The days of a theosophical propagandist, at least in Wales, are not conducive to continuous literary effort, and the novel on the life of the Mexican Prince of Peace is unlikely to be written by this pen.


Afterword

It is rather unusual that a novel, completed and ready for publication a few years before its author's death, should make its debut some fifty-odd years later. Such an event demands at least some brief explanation; in this instance, it necessitates a biographical exploration of the author, Kenneth Morris. However, as space here is limited, I must refer the interested reader to my introduction to the forthcoming volume of the collected short stories of Kenneth Morris, where a more extended study will be found. Here, I am restricted to a brief sketch.

Kenneth Vennor Morris was born at his grandfather's manor house in South Wales in 1879. There he lived until after the deaths of his father, in 1884, and grandfather, in 1885, and the failure of the family business. Rosa Morris, with her two young sons, Ronald and Kenneth, moved to London, where, in 1887, Kenneth was enrolled in the school at Christ's Hospital. He graduated in 1895 with a thoroughly classical English education, yet he retained a strong loyalty to his own Welsh background.

In 1896, Morris visited Dublin, where he encountered a group of writers and mystics associated with the Dublin Lodge of the Theosophical Society, including George Russell (AE), Violet North, William Butler Yeats, and Ella Young. This encounter shaped the rest of Morris's life. He enthusiastically joined the Theosophical Society and began contributing to the Society's publications — poetry, essays, dramas, and short stories. Over the next forty years, nearly all of Morris's writings would be found in theosophical publications.

Morris stayed in Dublin for only a few months, after which he returned to Wales, where he became active in the Cardiff Lodge of the Theosophical Society. He continued writing, and attracted the notice of Katherine Tingley, leader of the Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society. Tingley's great vision of an ideal community and international headquarters, where the theosophical life could be realized, was already being fulfilled in Point Loma, California, a picturesque and peninsular headland between San Diego and the mountains to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Tingley invited Morris to join the staff of the headquarters, and in January 1908 Kenneth Morris arrived at Point Loma. He would spend the next twenty-two years of his life there, and it was at Point Loma that Morris would write and publish the majority of his output.

In addition to his duties as Professor of History and Literature at Point Loma's Raja Yoga College, Morris managed to contribute numerous essays, poems, and short stories to the theosophical publications. His first novel, The Fates of the Princes of Dyfed, a retelling of parts of the Welsh Mabinogion, was published in a handsome edition by the theosophical press at Point Loma in September 1914. The Welsh form of his name, Cenydd Morus, appeared on the title page, and the volume was illustrated by Reginald Machell, another distinguished Point Loma resident, who also illustrated many of Morris's short stories as they appeared in the Point Loma periodicals.

Other book-length lecture series by Morris appeared in the Point Loma magazines, including "Golden Threads in the Tapestry of History" (1915-16; collected in book form in 1975), "The Three Bases of Poetry — A Study of English Verse" (1917), and "The Crest-Wave of Evolution" (1919-21). Ten of Morris's short stories were collected in England in November 1926, in a gorgeously produced volume published by Faber & Gwyer entitled The Secret Mountain and Other Tales.

Sometime in the late 1920s, Morris became reacquainted with Ella Young, whom he had known in Dublin. She, too, had come to California, where she lived and lectured and wrote. Her children's books were published in America by Longmans, Green and Company. She convinced her editor, Bertha L. Gunterman, to consider for publication Kenneth Morris's second recension of Welsh legends, Book of the Three Dragons. It was accepted, and when it was selected by the editors of the Junior Literary Guild as the selection for "Boys and Girls between the ages of 8-12 years," upon publication in September 1930, it reached a larger audience than had any previous book by Kenneth Morris.

But by this time Morris was back in Wales. After Katherine Tingley's death in July 1929, followed shortly thereafter by the stock market crash, the Point Loma headquarters found itself in a desperate financial situation. The new leader encouraged members who could do so to leave Point Loma, to "earn their living in the outside world, and if possible to contribute part of their earnings to Point Loma."

Kenneth Morris returned to his beloved Wales. There in the next seven years before his death in 1937, he would found seven Welsh theosophical lodges. His output dwindled, but he began in January 1933 a publication of his own, Y Fforwm Theosoffaid (the Welsh "Theosophical Forum"), a four-page, stenciled, monthly publication (in English) of theosophical instruction and philosophy.

Morris's health, never good, worsened under a heavy lecture schedule. Part of this was due to a malfunctioning thyroid gland, and in April 1937 Morris entered a Cardiff hospital. To friends he confided that without an operation, he stood to live only a year at best, but if he could stand the operation itself, he would have a new lease on life. It was performed on 20 April 1937; Morris regained consciousness for only a few minutes afterward and gradually slipped into a deeper coma. He died at 4:00 A.M. on 21 April 1937.

His passing was mourned mainly in theosophical periodicals, but notices appeared in the general papers in Wales and in San Diego. Over the years, his memory has been venerated principally in the theosophical communities, where his writings have continued to be published and republished. Morris's lecture series, "Golden Threads in the Tapestry of History," achieved book form from Point Loma Publications in 1975, and three of his Chinese stories, together with a long Taoist poem, were collected by the Ben-Sen Press under the title Through Dragon Eyes, in 1980.

Morris's name among the general readership has long been forgotten, although his name is not unknown among those of the most assiduous and persistent readers of fantasy literature. Lin Carter included a small section from Book of the Three Dragons in his anthology Dragons, Elves, and Heroes (1969), in the acclaimed Ballantine Adult Fantasy Series. But it is to Ursula K. Le Guin that we owe the most credit for calling Morris to our attention, for it is in her landmark 1973 essay on style in fantasy literature, "From Elfland to Poughkeepsie," that she has singled out Morris along with J. R. R. Tolkien and E. R. Eddison as the three master stylists of fantasy in the twentieth century. Perhaps as a result of this, Fates of the Princes of Dyfed was reprinted by Newcastle in 1978, and Book of the Three Dragons was reprinted in a library edition by Arno Press in the same year.

Several short stories by Morris were soon thereafter reprinted in various anthologies, most notably in the excellent series of fantasy anthologies edited by Robert H. Boyer and Kenneth J. Zahorski (1977-81). Zahorski and Boyer also pioneered the study of Morris's bibliography in their collective study, Lloyd Alexander, Evangeline Walton Ensley, Kenneth Morris: A Primary and Secondary Bibliography (1988), which also includes the only published information to date about Morris's life. More recently, David G. Hartwell included three previously uncollected Morris stories in his superlative anthology, Masterpieces of Fantasy and Enchantment (1988). Still, however, only about half of Morris's excellent short stories have been reprinted since their original appearance. This imbalance will be rectified with this novel's forthcoming companion volume, which will contain the collected tales of Kenneth Morris, including thirty-three of his mature tales and five of his previously unrecorded early stories.

Kenneth Morris during his life never sought any acclaim or renown, and little found him save for that within his theosophical circle. His indifference, I think, accounts for some of this neglect. To a number of people, including Ella Young and Morris's young friend and Point Loma student, W. Emmett Small, Morris expressed the desire that he be discovered, if at all, some hundred or so years after his death. We needn't wait so long, especially with a major work, newly published, and a long-needed omnibus of his best work, his short stories, coming soon.

Kenneth Morris's last major work, The Chalchiuhite Dragon, was written for Katherine Tingley, after her request on Christmas Day of 1925 that Morris write something on a pre-Columbian subject. Evidence suggests that Morris had finished the book before he left Point Loma in January 1930, for on 27 November 1930, he wrote to W. Emmett Small's mother at Point Loma that he was "busy with The Chalchiuhite Dragon again, and am able to shorten and concentrate it with very good results." However, it wasn't until 1935 that he sent back to Point Loma the final version. Typescripts of the novel have been carefully preserved by the Society librarians, and by W. Emmett Small, foreseeing eventual publication.

For assisting in the preparation for this publication, it gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the help and friendship of John P. Van Mater, Head Librarian of the Theosophical University Library (Pasadena); Kirby Van Mater, Archivist of The Theosophical Society (Pasadena); William T. S. Thackara, Manager of the Theosophical University Press (Pasadena); W. Emmett Small, of Point Loma Publications (San Diego); and Alex E. Urquhart, friend and literary executor of Kenneth Morris (Cardiff, Wales).

Douglas A. Anderson
Ithaca, New York July 1991

Glossary

In compiling this glossary, I have found it expedient to follow Kenneth Morris's own example in his two novels The Fates of the Princes of Dyfed (1914) and Book of the Three Dragons (1930). In these imaginative expansions of Welsh mythology, Morris provided succinct glossaries of the major characters and place names, with enough information to remind the reader of the referent without giving away any of the story. I believe this an admirable principle, and I have tried to follow it.

The glossaries were necessary in Morris's two earlier novels owing to the confusing and eye-splitting Welsh names. A glossary is necessary with this novel because of the bewildering complexity of the Nahua names. Nahua (or Nahuatl) represents a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan family, spoken by various native peoples of North and Central America.

Morris used as his primary source for this novel, in all matters of myth, history, language and culture, the works of Hubert Howe Bancroft (1832-1918). Bancroft, whose voluminous "works" bore his name alone even though he depended heavily on the research and writing of numerous assistants, became known as the first great historian of the West Coast with his Native Races of the Pacific States (5 vols., 1874-5), History of the Pacific States (28 vols., 1882-90), and other works. Today his work has been superseded and is largely confined to the shelves of university libraries.

In the five volumes of Native Races of the Pacific States, Morris found all of the basics for his story. And I have found it a useful resource in providing collateral information about the entries in this glossary. However, this glossary remains primarily based on the material as used by Morris, and I have not felt it necessary to elaborate on just how Morris used (or did not use) Bancroft, or on how Morris used the Nahua language as presented in Bancroft.

I have also resisted the temptation to provide the story with a map. To pick precisely where Morris might have situated his mythical Huitznahuac seems to me wrong-headed. Huitznahuac should remain just off the map. Suffice it, simply, to describe the general area.

The Toltec League was centered in and around the Anahuacs, in the valley of central Mexico, where were located the cities of Tollan (Tula), Culhuacan, and Teotihuacan. The Otomi lands were to the east and southeast. Goazacoalco, near which could be found the Serpent's Hole, centered around the modern Coatzacoalcos, at the lower tip of the Bay of Campeche. The Zapotecs lived to the north of the Gulf of Tehuantepec; the Chiapanecs, to the east of it; the Quiches and Maya farther to the east (and northeast). Huitznahuac, therefore, would be somewhere in or around the southernmost part of Mexico, or perhaps farther to the southeast.

A few general comments should be made concerning the pronunciation of the names of places and persons, which as given here can only approximate the complex Nahua sounds.

c (in ca, co, cu) is pronounced k.
(in ce, ci) is pronounced as in 'city.'
hu (or uh) is pronounced as w or hw.
qu (in qua) is pronounced kw.
(in que, qui) is pronounced k.
tl is pronounced as in 'atlas.
x is pronounced sh.
z is pronounced s as in 'song.'

The accent nearly always falls on the penultimate syllable.

Last, I should mention that I have listed personal names under the most commonly used form, and included variations of the names in parentheses immediately afterward. Thus under "Nopal" will be found his full name, Nopaltzin, and the affectionate and familiar derivatives, Nopalton and Nopaltontli. — D.A.A.

-------

Acamapichlii (Acamapitzin), son of King Ashokentzin, and great-uncle to Chimalman.

Acatonal (Acatonatzin), the Tezcatlipoca-teacher, eldest son of King Ashokentzin and great-uncle to Chimalman, joint head of the Calmecac with his brother, Amaqui.

Amaqui (Amaquitzin), the Quetzalcoatl-priest, second surviving son of King Ashokentzin and great-uncle to Chimalman, joint head of the Calmecac: with his elder brother, Acatonal.

Ameyal (Ameyatzin), the Tlaloc-priest, the oldest man in all Huitznahuac,
cousin to King Ashokentzin.

Anahuacs, the area around the valley of Mexico in the northern world, with its three most important cities, Culhuacan, Teotihuacan and Tollan.

Ashokentzin, previous king of Huitznahuac, great-grandfather to Chimalman and father of Acamapichtli, Acatonal, and Amaqui.

Ashopatzin, father of Nopal.

Been, one of the Saltmen, a trader from Chiapas who visits Huitznahuac.

Calmecac, the college where the Huitznahuac boys were educated (the girls went to the Girls' College).

Camaxtli, the Toltec God of War.

Catautlish, a young lad at Rainflower, a xylophone player.

Ce Acad, a year (Reed One), the fourteenth in any year-bundle of 52 years. Quetzalcoatl is always born in a year Ce Acad.

Centeotl, the Maize-queen, a goddess of Huitznahuac.

chalchiuhite, a precious green stone, variously identified with green quartz, jade or turquoise.

Chiapas, land to the north of Huitznahuac.

Chiapanec, a person from Chiapas.

Chimalman (Chimalmatzin), queen of Huitznahuac, great-granddaughter of Ashokentzin.

Cipactli, the great Sea-creature of the Wave beneath the Sun.

Citlalicway Teteoinan, the Mighty Mother, a goddess of Huitznahuac.

Civacoatli (Civacoatzin, Civacoatl), elder sister of Nonohualcatl, the Toltec Topiltzin.

Coadantona, a flower goddess of Huitznahuac.

Cocotzin, a Culhuatec noble and general.

Cohuanacotli (Cohuanacotzin), a Culhuatec and favorite of Nonohualcatl and Huemac.

Copil, a young lad at Rainflower, a flute player.

Coshcana, servant of the Hermit of Puma Rock.

Coshcosh, a young lad at Rainflower, a gardener.

cozcaquahtli, a vulture; also the name of a regiment in Huemac's army.

Cuetzpalin (Cuetzpaltzin), name given by Nonohualcat] to the Otomi Nratzo, who saved his life.

Culhuacan, city in the Anahuacs, capital of the power of the Toltec League, whose king was Nonohualcatl, the Toltec Topiltzin.

Cuthuatec, a person from Culhuacan.

Eeweesho (Eeweeshotzin), servant to Queen Chimalman, wife of Ocotosh.

Ghuggg, one of the chieftains of the Ib Quinames, used by Yen Ranho.

Guaish, one of the chieftains of the Ib Quinames, used by Yen Ranho.

Hax, one of the Saltmen, a trader from Chiapas who visits Huitznahuac.

Huanhua, ancestor of Chimalman; he who came to Queen Ulupi of Huitznahuac from beyond the western sea.

Huehuetzin, the Master at the Serpent's Hole.

Huemac (Huetzin) Tezcatlipoca, king of Tollan and brother of Nonohualcati. Huhu, Otomi sentinel, founder of the Republic of New Otompan, and member of the Tzo family.

Huitznahuac, kingdom of Queen Chimalman.

Huitznahuacan, capital city of the kingdom of Huitznahuac, on the lower western slopes of the mountain Mishcoatepetl.

Huitznahuatec, a person from Huitznahuac.

Ib, one of the chieftains of the Ib Quinames, used by Yen Ranho.

Ikak, one of the Blue-Hummingbird Pygmies.

Ilanquey, daughter of Ketlasho and Shaltemoc.

Ishcash (Ishcatzin), the village priest of the Mountain (Teotepetl) at Rainflower. He was also a cousin and good friend to Nopal and his family.

Ishmishutzin Teteoinan, healing woman of Huitznahuac.

Iyaca, disciple and servant to Ameyal, the Tlaloc-priest.

Iztaman, son of Ketlasho and Shaltemoc.

Ketlasho (Ketlashotzin, Ketlashton), sister of Nopal and wife of Shaltemoc. koo, a truncated pyramid with a temple at the top.

macuahuitl swords, heavy wooden swords with a line of sharp stones firmly set along the two edges.

Mahetsi, secretary to Yen Ranho.

mashtli (or maxtli), a loin cloth eight yards long and nine inches wide, worn in and about the middle, with fringed and painted ends hanging down before and behind.

Matlalqua, see under Mayavel

Maxio (Maxiotzin), wife of Shollo.

Mayavel, one of the Four Votaresses of Tlaloc, who, with a fifth votary, a youth, would climb Mishcoatepetl at Tepeilhuitl, the Feast of the Mountains. The other three votaresses are the Tepos, the Shochiteca, and the Matlalqua. The fifth, a young man chosen from the Calmecac, is the Milnaoatl.

Mictlantecuhitli, king of Hell (Mictlan).

Milnaoatl, see under Mayavel.

Mishcoatepetl, the Cloud-Serpent Mountain, on whose western slopes was the city of Huitznahuacan.

Nahua (or Nahuatl), a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan family, spoken by various native peoples of North and Central America.

Nayna the Aged, healing woman.

Natzo, an Otomi sentinel, founder of the Republic of New Otompan, and member of the Tzo family (brother of Nratzo).

Nauhyo (Nauhyotontzin, Nauhyotontli), young boy sent to Nopal by the Master at Eagle Hermitage.

nequen, a coarse fabric woven of the agave, or century plant.

Nonohualcatl (Nonohualton) Totepeuh Camaxtli, king of Culhuacan and head of all the Toltec race, with the title Toltec Topiltzin, whose god-name is Camaxtli, the Toltec God of War. All other kings are his subordinates.

Nopal (Nopaltzin, Nopalton, Nopaltontli), son of Ashopatzin, brother of Shollo and Ketlasho, and husband of Chimalman. During his travels in the north, he used the name Quanez.

Nratzo, Otomi name of Cuetzpalin, brother of Natzo and member of the Tzo family.

Ochpaniztli, month-name of the last month of the year.

ocotl, a type of pine.

Ocotosh, servant to Queen Chimalman, with his wife, Eeweesho.

Ometochtli, God of Drunkards and Drunkenness, whose name means "tworabbits"; also the name of a Culhuatec regiment.

Opochtli, an old man at the Huitznahuacan market.

Otompan, city of the Otomis, near Teotihuacan.

Otomis, the race of people dwelling in the Otomi Republic, around Teotihuacan.

Otomitl, military head of Otompan.

Panquetzaliztli, a month-name.

Papantli of Quauchinanco, cook who befriends Quahtli on the Road.

Pelashil, daughter of Ketlasho and Shaltemoc.

Pfapffo, one of the three Little Gods of Forgotten Plain.

pulque, a fermented drink made from the juice of an agave.

Pweeg, one of the three Little Gods of Forgotten Plain.

Pygmies, a forest race, including the tribes of Blue-Hummingbird Pygmies and Viridian Pygmies.

Quahh, a youth among the Viridian Pygmies.

Quauhtepetl, Eagle Mountain, on which could be found Eagle Hermitage.

quauhtli, an eagle; also the name of a regiment in Huemac's army.

Quauhtli (Quauhtzin, Quauhton), fellow disciple with Nopal at Eagle Hermitage, the tallest and strongest of the Huitznahuatecs.

Quanez (Quanetzin) of Quahnahuac, disguised name of Nopal in the north. quechol, a large aquatic bird with plumage of a scarlet color and a black neck.

Quecholli, a month-name.

Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Dragon, God of Huitznahuac, periodically reborn among men (always in a year Ce Acatl) to teach peace.

Quicab, one of the Saltmen, a trader from Chiapas who visits Huitznahuac.

Quinames, a giant race of a previous age; the surviving tribes of the Quinames may possibly be descendants of this ancient race; these tribes include Gholb, Appa, Hlun and lb Quinames.

Quinatepetl, a mountain in Huitznahuac.

Rainflower Manor, home of Nopal and his family, at the foot of Teotepetl.

Saltmen, the name given to Chiapanec traders by the Huitznahuatecs.

Shaltemoc (Shalternotzin), husband of Ketlasho.

Shelwa, son of Shollo and Maxio.

Sbewtecuhtli, the Fire-god of Huitznahuac.

Shilonen, a corn goddess of Huitznahuac.

Shochill, spinster nurse to the children of Shollo at Rainflower Manor.

Shochiteca, see under Mayavel

Shollo (Shollotzin), brother of Nopal and husband of Maxio.

Shuquentzin, queen of Huitznahuac previous to Chimalman.

Tata, Commander of the Escort of Yen Ranho.

Tatzin ("Lord Father"), honorific used by Nopal to his father, Ashopatzin.

Tecpatl, the Flint-stone hurled at the earth by Citlalicway Teteoinan, the Mighty Mother, whose sparks kindled the gods.

tecuhtli, a title meaning lord.

Teotepetl, "the Mountain that was God," near Rainflower Manor; on it could be found the Serpent's Hole.

Teotihuacan, city in the Anahuacs, the capital of religion in the Toltec League. The people there are called Otomis, and they have been in the Anahuacs much longer than the Toltecs.

Teotleco, "the holiest of festivals," in the month of the same name.

Tepeilhuitl, "the Feast of the Mountains," in the month of the same name, which follows the month of Teotleco. It is the festival and holy season of the Tlalocs.

Tepos, see under Mayavel.

Teteo, the gods.

Teteoinan, see under Citlalicway Teteoinan.

Tezcatlipoca, the Soul of the World, a god of Huitznahuac.

tilmatli, a piece of cloth about four feet square, worn tied over one shoulder and covering the other, or tied over the breast and covering the shoulders.

Women wore tilmatlies over long, sleeveless gowns.

Tlacotzontli, one of the Huitznahuac gods of the roads.

Tlalocan, the paradise of the Tlalocs, which was the essence of the beauty and wildness and exaltation of all mountains everywhere.

Tlalocs, the gods of water and rain in Huitznahuac, a few of which are named:

Tlaloc Quitzetzelohua, the Down-scatterer of Jewels, and Tlaloc Tepahpaca Teaaltati, the Purifier.

tlapalizqui bush, a red-flowered plant.

Tlaxochirnaco, a month-name.

Tlilcuetzpalins, a regiment of the Otomis.

Tollan, city in the Anahuacs, capital of culture of the Toltec League. Its king was Huemac.

Toltec League, dominion of the Toltec Topiltzin.

Toltec Topiltzin, title of the head of the Toltec race; see Nonohualcatl topillies, the men who keep order in the streets of Teotihuacan. Topiltzin, title of the Toltec king.

Toshpilli, drummer at Rainflower.

Tozcaykech, drummer at Rainflower.

Tzang, one of the three Little Gods of Forgotten Plain.

tzinitzcan, a bird with splendid plumage.

tzitzimitl, an evil spirit, or demon.

Tzontecoma, lord of the Northern District of Huitznahuac.

Ulupi, ancestral queen of Huitznahuac, to whom Huanhua came from beyond the western sea.

Xocotlhuetzi, a month-name.

Yacacoliuhqui, the god of merchants in Huitznahuac.

Yacanex (Yacanetzin) of Tollan, ambassador from Huemac.

Yanesh (Yaneshton, Yanetzintli) the Straw, the very old gardener at Rainflower Manor, who had designed the great Rainflower garden.

Yaotzin, the Dark Tezcatlipoca, the dark shadow of the god Tezcatlipoca.

Yen Ranho, the Hierarch of Teotihuacan, sent to Huitznahuac by Huemac of Tollan.

yetl, a pipeweed.

Yetsu, an Otomi cook.

Zacatzontli, one of the Huitznahuac gods of the roads.


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